Getting Predominantly Black Institutions a Primetime Spot

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Anthony Fowlkes

For African American students looking to pursue postsecondary education, the term HBCU brings out many opinions. Recently, HBCUs have been featured in the media from TV shows like Black-ish, and United Shades of America to their own PBS special, Tell Them We Are Rising: The Story of Black Colleges & Universities. Just last year, these institutions made national news when HBCU presidents met with President Trump in the White House and when the Secretary of Education, Betsy DeVos, gave her first commencement speech at Bethune-Cookman University. If that was not impressive enough, Beyoncé turned her 2018 Coachella performances into a tribute to the Black excellence found at HBCUs. The conversation around HBCUs is alive and happening now.

It might come as a shock to some that Black education is not contained in just these 105 institutions. There are 30 other institutions currently designated as Predominately Black Institutions (PBIs). PBIs are approaching their 10-year anniversary since written into law when the Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 – a reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965 – passed. However, Congress first recognized these institutions through the Predominantly Black Institution Act of 2007.

These institutions were designated as PBIs as a result of one of the final provisions of the then Senator, Barack Obama. In an interview with the Chronicle of Higher Education Obama stated, “Congress has long supported the essential role of similar institutions through provisions supporting Historically Black Colleges and Universities, but newer institutions serving a needier, but deserving student populations can now also be recognized and supported.” The move to designate these institutions was intentional and critical to expanding funding opportunities to institutions that serve Black students.

Now you must be wondering if HBCUs are historical, how does one define a PBI? There are 4 criteria that the federal government uses to define a PBI, they are:

  1. Must serve at least 1,000 undergraduate students
  2. Have a high proportion of Pell-eligible undergraduate students in comparison with other institutions offering similar instruction
  3. Have a low per full-time undergraduate student expenditure in comparison with other institutions offering similar instruction
  4. Must enroll at least 40% African-American students

These criteria are not easy bars to clear. In comparison, when determining eligibility for the 2018 academic year, the U.S. Department of Education found that:

  • 29 of undergraduate serving HBCUs enrolled less than 1,000 undergraduate students
  • 4 HBCUs enrolled few Pell-eligible students compared to similar institutions
  • 16 HBCUs spent more on full-time undergrads than similar institutions
  • 5 HBCUs did not enroll at least 40% of African-American students

If we are holding PBIs to such a high standard, then we need to acknowledge the hard work they are doing. I believe this show of support can come in several forms.

Firstly, higher education scholars should begin researching PBIs. These institutions are currently one of the least studied of all of the Minority Serving Institutions, particularly due to their newness. However, after 10 years there are still no peer-reviewed studies conducted solely on PBIs. There is ample opportunity to not only examine the outcomes PBIs produce but also include these institutions alongside current assessments of HBCUs to give a fuller picture of Black postsecondary education. In addition, over 100 more institutions are on the cusp of becoming PBIs, as of 2017. We, as a higher education community, need to examine the specific needs of these schools in order to assist in overcoming barriers.

Secondly, PBIs are serving as a pipeline for Black students to enter postsecondary education. PBIs are mostly 2-year colleges offering associates degrees in the East, South, and Midwest. If HBCUs partnered with these institutions, then the pipeline could continue for these students. This approach provides more opportunities for students who were unsure of pursuing a 4-year education first, wanted to stay closer to home, or lacked knowledge around HBCUs. Partnerships would not only help students but could also help increase HBCU enrollment – especially due to the proximity of PBIs to HBCUs.

Finally, through media and consumer education, there needs to be a push to highlight these institutions to students and families. These institutions don’t have the legacies of HBCUs to carry them into the Oval Office or to the stage at Coachella. As a community of people interested in the success of Black students, spotlighting PBIs will garner more public support and illuminate the excellent work these institutions are doing to support and uplift Black and first-generation low-income students. Getting research into the hands of media commentators, calling representatives to stress the importance of these institutions, and getting those speaking to high school students to include PBIs as an option is just the first step towards PBIs primetime spot.

Anthony Fowlkes is currently pursuing a master’s degree in Higher Education as well as a master’s degree in Public Policy at the University of Michigan. He is originally from Troy, Michigan and attended the University of Michigan as an undergraduate, majoring in both Economics and Asian Studies. Anthony worked throughout his undergraduate career in the Office of the Vice President of Student Life conducting research on the institution’s student population. In his first year of graduate school, Anthony worked with University of Michigan’s Office of Enrollment. Anthony’s research interests include federal financial aid system and the effectiveness of institutional policies that assist in the accurate and timely disbursement of those funds. Anthony was also an intern at the Penn Center for Minority Serving Institutions. 

TCUs: Saving Native American Education

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Rachel Bryan

Native Americans have the lowest educational attainment of any race.

In 1990, only 9% of Native Americans under the age of 25 had a bachelor’s degree, compared to 21% of all US citizens.  Fortunately, with the preparation of a two-year tribal college or university (TCU), Native American students are four times more likely to earn their bachelor’s degree than those who entered a mainstream four-year institution out of high school and 86% of students that attend TCUs earn a degree. Why is this gap in educational attainment so vast?

One of the ways in which mainstream institutions are failing their Native American students is that they are simply not addressing the values of Native American students. For example, family is such an important value in Native American culture that it can “take priority over their personal academic progress.” Additionally, Native American families struggle with high rates of poverty, alcoholism, drug abuse, and domestic violence, which can affect students and even result in them dropping out of college.

It is also important to note that many Native Americans are first-generation students. Cheryl Crazy Bull, president of the American Indian College Fund and former president of Northwest Indian College, has witnessed a lack of preparedness from Native American students because they aren’t having conversations about college with family members and friends: “We’ve encountered students who were coming to college and didn’t know they were going to be responsible for attending classes and asking for help if they needed help…School is starting in a few weeks and we have students just now who are looking for funding. That’s an aspect of college readiness. You have to get ready for college ahead of time.” Not only is a first-generation student coming into a mainstream university at a disadvantage, but they are also rarely given resources specific to their needs by the university upon arrival. Mainstream universities often lump together first-generation students and provide general resources.

Finally, and perhaps most obviously, mainstream institutions are Eurocentric and often ignore “cultural traditions, norms, and perspectives of other racial and cultural groups.” Specifically, instruction at these universities is vastly different than the hands-on methods that are praised in the Native American community, which forces over one-third of Native American students into academic remediation. In addition to their Eurocentric curriculum, these institutions often don’t have faculty of Native American descent, which can further discourage Native American students to attend.

Enter TCUs.

First, TCUs recognize the need for culturally relevant material. By incorporating Native American values, tribal languages, and tribal history, their curriculum is culturally sensitive and provides Native American students with programs and courses that meet their needs. Not only is their course content relevant, but it also is taught in a way that empowers students. Many TCUs utilize the Family Education Model, the purpose of which is to increase Native American student retention by affirming linguistic, racial, and ethnic identities, by providing academic and familial counseling, by building a tight-knit community, and by preparing students for mainstream culture. Perhaps most importantly, this model emphasizes that the issues surrounding Native American student retention should not be blamed on the behaviors of Native American students, but on the tension between institutional, student, and familial values.

Second, TCUs recognize the disadvantages present for Native Americans and for those who are first-generation, so they are very encouraging of faculty and staff mentorship. These mentors are often called “follow-through” mentors because if their mentee is interested in transferring to a four-year institution, they aid in this process and maintain contact after the transfer process is complete. In addition to their mentorship role, follow-through mentors also act as tutors and advisors for Native American students and are present in many aspects of students’ lives.

Finally, if they are interested in transferring, TCUs help Native American students adjust to the academic environment of post-secondary education before having to adjust to the social environment of a mainstream institution. The environment of a TCU contrasts with that of a mainstream institution in many ways, including the institutional mission, the size of the institution, and the racial makeup of students, staff, and faculty. Through empowerment and preparation, TCUs serve to “raise a bunch of radicals with the skills to recognize and address social injustice,” as stated by Cheryl Crazy Bull, and these skills essential in preparing TCU graduates in their transition to a mainstream institution.

While mainstream universities by nature can’t provide all of the benefits that TCUs can provide to Native American students, they can learn from TCUs as a whole and attempt to increase Native American enrollment and retention. First, they can avoid generalizing their first-generation students. This postsecondary community represents a cornucopia of experiences and perspectives, and therefore, requires diverse resources. Second, they can establish bridge programs, collaborations, and partnerships with TCUs that will help Native American students transfer if they choose to do so. In sum, TCUs are “truly community colleges” and are doing wonders for the for the Native American community, both in educational attainment and community support.

Rachel Bryan is a second-year M.A. student at the University of Michigan studying Higher Education with a concentration in Diversity and Social Justice. She received her B.A. in Linguistics and a minor in Gender and Health from the University of Michigan as well. Currently, she is a Graduate Intern at the Office of Multi-Ethnic Student Affairs, where she has run programming and social media campaigns for Native American Heritage Month and Arab Heritage Month, in addition to working with students and staff to run the 46th Annual Dance for Mother Earth Powwow. Rachel was a summer research assistant for the Penn Center for Minority Serving Institutions (CMSI), she hopes to continue her research on TCUs, as well as work on the CMSI’s various programs.